Japan Railways (JR)

Numbering system of JR vehicles

❚  Shinkansen rolling stock   and the rolling stock of  JR Shikoku  are numbered within a different system

  • 1. Prefixes to multiple units / motor coaches

 ク           KU        with driving cab, but not motorised unless specifically classed as

クモ  (KUMO)

モ           MO        motorised, but without driving cab unless specifically classed as

クモ    (KUMO)

クモ       KUMO   motorised and with driving cab

サ           SA         non-motorised and without driving cab

キ           KI          diesel coach with or without driving cab

キサ       KISA     non-motorised coach within a diesel multiple unit

HB                       Hybrid diesel/battery motor coach

EV                       Energy storage vehicle (battery electric vehicle)

  • 2. Added to the class number : E    = all vehicles belonging to JR East Japan built from 1993 onwards

(Example: モハE231-1070 (MOHA E231-1070): motorised electric multiple unit coach without driving cab of Series 231 (belonging to JR East Japan), no. 1070

  • 3. Letters added to the prefixes of multiple units, motor coaches and passenger stock

ハ           HA         ordinary passenger coach

ロ           RO         passenger coach with superior seating, "Green Car" (corresponds roughly to  First Class in Europe)

ヤ           YA         coach for departmental use, non-revenue earning

ニ           NI          for luggage transport / luggage compartment

ユ           YU         post van

ネ           NE         sleeping car / compartment

シ           SHI       dining car / dining or buffet compartment

ル           RU         for transport services mainly between maintenance depots

フ           FU         (on locomotive hauled passenger stock only) with guard's compartment

テ           TE         (on locomotive hauled passenger stock only) tourist coach with special areas for viewing the scenery

  • 4. Prefixes to coaches in passenger trains

 ナ           NA         weight 27,5 to 32,5 t

オ           O           weight 32,5 to 37,5 t

ス           SU         weight 37,5 to 42,5 t

マ           MA        weight 42,5 to 47,5 t

カ           KA         weight over 47,5 t

(Example: スハフ42 2071  -  ordinary passenger coach weighing 37,5 to 42,5 t and with guard's compartment, class 42, no.2071)

  • 5. Prefixes to freight and maintenance vehicles

ワ           WA        covered van

ト           TO         open wagon

コ           KO         for transport of containers

タ           TA          tank wagon

ホ           HO        hopper wagon, hopper ballast wagon

ヨ           YO         guard's van, breakvan

キ           KI          snowplough

チ           CHI       wagon to transport long items

  • 6. Letters added to the prefixes of freight and maintenance vehicles

 none                    weight under 13 t

ム           MU        weight 14 to 16 t

ラ           RA         weight 17 to 19 t

サ           SA         weight 20 to 24 t

キ           KI          weight over 25 t

  • 7. Locomotives: First position
none      steam
   note: steam locomotive types built to a pre-1926 design are numbered in a different method without letters

E            electric

D           diesel

H           hybrid diesel/battery

  • 8. Locomotives: Second position

B            two driven axles

C            three driven axles

D           four driven axles

E            five driven axles

F            six driven axles

H           eight driven axles